STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GARLIC AND HONEY ON SOME UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
TABLE OF CONTENT
COVER PAGE – – – – – – – – – -i
CERTIFICATION – – – – – – – – -ii
DEDICATION – – – – – – – – – -iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT – – – – – – – -iv
TABLE OF CONTENT – – – – – – – – -v
ABSTRACT – – – – – – – – – -viii
1. 0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – -1
a. MEDICINAL EFFECT OF HONEY – – – – -2
1.2 MEDICINAL EFFECT OF GARLIC – – – – -5
1.3 UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS BROBLEMS -6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – -8
2.1 HISTORY OF GARLIC AND HONEY – – – – -8
2.2 WHAT IS UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION? – – -13
2.3 CAUSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS -14
2.4 PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS – – -18
2.5 CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL INFECTION:
ANTIBIOTICS AND RESISTANT BACTERIA – – – -23
2.6 DIET FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION – – -26
2.7 NATURAL HOME REMEDIES FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION – – – – – – – – – -27
2.8 NUTRITIONAL APPROACHES TO BACTERIAL INFECTION:
A HEALTHY IMMUNE SYSTEM – – – – – – -29
3.0 MATERIAL AND METHOD – – – – – – -32
3.1 MATERIALS – – – – – – – – -32
3.2 STUDY POPULATION: – – – – – – -32
3.3 SPECIMEN COLLECTION – – – – – – -33
3.4 METHODS – – – – – – – – -34
4.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS – – – – – – -44
5.0 DISCUSSION – – – – – – – – -47
5.1 CONCLUSION – – – – – – – – -48
REFERENCE – – – – – – – – – -50
The study on the effect of honey and garlic on some upper respiratory tract infections was conducted between the month of June and October 2012 in Imo state.
A total number of sputum samples were collected from males and females age 20-25 years with clinical signs and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. The sputum samples collected were analyses using standard microbiological method. The micro organisms isolated from these sputum samples were, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus viridians, haemophilus influenzae and mycoplasma pneumonia. With the study on the effect of honey and garlic on some upper respiratory tract infections which these micro organisms were isolated from, reveals that garlic and honey has an effect on these micro organisms, by revealing its inhibitory zone on these organisms that were all isolated from these samples.
Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus viridian, heamophilus influenzea have a
6high inhibitory effect than mycoplasma pneumonia; it was revealed that there was no significant difference on their effectiveness of garlic and honey on the organisms tested, also there was high inhibiting zone in garlic and honey in patient aged 40-50 years.
- 0 INTRODUCTION
Honey and Garlic’s current principal medicinal uses are to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and cholesterol, as an antimicrobial, and as a preventive agent for cancer. The active constituents are several complex sulfur-containing compounds that are rapidly absorbed, transformed and metabolized. Pooled data from numerous randomized trials antibacterial effects, but these have not been evaluated in controlled trials in humans. Epidemiologic data, in vitro studies and animal data suggest that garlic may help prevent some solid tumors, but no randomized trials have evaluated its effectiveness as a therapeutic agent in oncology. There are no studies evaluating its effectiveness or safety in treating children or pregnant or nursing women. Garlic is safe when eaten as food, though in some sensitive persons, it can cause gastrointestinal irritation, and of course, halitosis. Prolonged topical use has been associated with moderate burns.
Until the first part of the 20th century, honey dressings were part of everyday wound care practice.
1.1 MEDICINAL EFFECT OF HONEY
In a test-tube study published in 2009, researchers found that honey can kill three types of drug-resistant bacteria known to cause sinusitis. In fact, study results showed that honey knocked out the bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus) more effectively than commonly used antibiotic drugs.
While these study results indicate that honey remedies may be of some use to people with sinusitis, it’s important to seek medical attention in treatment of sinusitis in order to reduce risk of serious complications (such as meningitis and vision problems).
1.1.1 Honey Remedies for Cough
When it comes to easing the cough and sleep problems associated with childhood upper respiratory tract infection, honey may be preferable to standard cough suppressants. That’s the main finding of a 2007 study, in which 105 children with upper respiratory tract infections were given a single dose of honey, dextromethorphan, or no treatment a half-hour before bedtime. When comparing the effects of honey and dextromethorphan, researchers found no significant differences.
In a report published in 2010, however, researchers concluded that there is “insufficient evidence to advise for or against the use of honey for acute cough in children.”
1.1.2 Honey Remedies for Allergies
Some honey proponents claim that regular consumption of locally harvested honey can help protect against allergies (such as hay fever). To test this theory, researchers in a 2002 study assigned 36 people with rhino-conjunctivitis (allergy-induced runny nose and itchy, watery eyes) to eat a tablespoon of locally collected honey, nationally collected honey, or honey-flavored corn syrup each day. Study results showed that neither group of honey-consuming study members experienced significantly greater improvement in their symptoms (compared with the placebo group).
1.1.3 How to Use Honey Remedies
More research needs to be conducted before honey remedies can be recommended as a treatment for any health condition. However, since honey is generally considered a safe, healthy substance, it’s unlikely that use of honey remedies will produce any adverse effects. In addition to using honey as a remedy, you can increase your honey consumption by using it as a sweetener in a number of health-promoting beverages, such as black tea and green tea.
1.2 MEDICINAL EFFECT OF GARLIC
Research garlic online or at your local library. You’ll learn that garlic, or more accurately the compound allicin found in garlic, has antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties that make it a treatment for respiratory infections.
Go to your local market and stock up on garlic at the start of the cold and flu season. As the winter goes on, you should use garlic more than you do at other times of the year. The garlic you use in your food will help boost your immune system to combat upper respiratory infections caused by viruses and other common ailments.
Use raw garlic in the foods you eat to realize maximum benefits. Finely chop or mince your garlic and add it to foods. Consume at least 1 full garlic clove per day, if not more.
Use garlic supplements to treat respiratory infections. Garlic capsules can be purchased at supermarkets, health food stores or drug stores. They are a good way to incorporate garlic into your diet without incurring garlic breath.
Brew a pot of garlic tea to treat respiratory infections. When you develop a cough or feel a sore throat coming, mince a garlic clove and add it to boiling water. Let it sit for several minutes to allow the allicin to infuse the water. Strain out the minced garlic and drink the brew. You’ll notice a wonderful cooling effect on the lining of your throat as the garlic soothes the inflamed tissue.
1.3 UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS BROBLEMS
Upper respiratory tract infections (Upper respiratory tract infections) are the most widespread infectious illnesses in many communities. During hajj season, the hazards of Upper respiratory tract infections have both local and international ramifications.
Bacterial pathogens in upper respiratory tract infections
|pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis||Rarely: Peptostreptococcus|
|aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa||Anaerobic
cocci , Prevotella spp, Porphyromonas spp, Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides spp
|pneumoniae, H. influenzae, catarrhalis
|hemolytic streptococci, S. aureus, Haemophilus spp||anaerobic cocci, Prevotella spp, Porphyromonas spp, Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides spp|
|Viruses, group A -hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes)||rarely anaerobes|