A STUDY INTO MOTIVATIONAL TOOLS AND THE PRODUCTIVITY OF OFFICE PROFESSIONALS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED FIRMS IN UYO LGA)
Definition of Motivation
The word motivation is derived from the Latin word move which means to move. Today, the term motivation means move. Motivation has been defined by many scholars in various ways, but meaning the same thing. Motivation is a driving force that initiate and direct behaviour. Motivation is a reason for action that which gives purpose and direction to behaviour. Olatunle (2003) described motivation as all those inner striving conditions described as wishes, desires, drive etc. it is an inner state that activate or moves and direct behaviour towards goals. Human motives are based on needs whether consciously or unconsciously felt.Debra and James (1997), â€œMotivation is the process of arousing and satisfying goal directed behaviour. Burton and Tharkar (2005) defined motivation as those course that force people to behave in different ways.Cole (2002) desire motivation as â€œ the process in which people choose between alternatives forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals.James and Lindner (1995) defined motivation as an inner force that derives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.Higgins (1995) say motivation is an internal derives that satisfy and unsatisfied needs. Greenborg (2009), defined motivation as a process of arousing directing and maintaining behaviour towards a goal. Robin and Delengu (1995), says motivation is the willingness that exert high level of effects, ability to satisfy some individual needs.Halljreid et al (1982), look at motivation as that which causes channels and sustains individuals behaviour. A factor which ginger an individual to apply more of his effort and talent to the services of his employer. Appleby (1990), refers motivation to the way urges, aspirations derives and need of human being direct or control or explain their behaviour. It may be described as the way for a particular pattern of behaviour.The Oxford Dictionary (4th Edition) defines motivation as â€œthe act or course for action that urges a person to set a certain wayâ€.
Having looked at the definitions of motivation by various scholars, motivation is simply spurning the work force of greater productivity, as it encompasses all those and sustain humanÂ behaviour. Managers, by definition are required to work with and through people, so they must gain at least focus, that will motivate people they are to manage. People are complex and are uniquely different. Managers who want to be successful need to learn, to understand the concept of human motivation and should be able to use that understanding to achieve high standard of subordinate work performance.
The contemporary approaches of motivation are based on the related concept of needs difference and goals directed behaviours as presented below: the basic motivation framework begins with needs or difference that a person or an individual experiences. For instance, the worker may feel the need to earn a higher salary, this need deficiency triggers to search for ways in which the needs may be satisfied, example, better performance. The next and individual select one of those ways to satisfy the need deficiency and take any steps for the goal directed behaviour perhaps, asking the boss for a raise. Reward and punishment will follow the performance and this person will rises the need deficiency. Adequate motivational factors have little or no place in a rationalistic account of conduct, because manâ€™s reason is the over riding factor in the determination of what he does. His will is free to choose whatever course of action his reason dictates. If his choice are unwise, unethical or immoral, he is responsible for them because his reason and his will have freely selected them. On the other hand, motivational factor would explain the behaviour of man in a particular circumstances if it was accepted that he is irrational.