THE BANKING SECTOR IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA
A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK
This project is a thorough research into the the banking sector in the economic developmemt of Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria Plc. In carrying out the research investigation into the performance of banks and the extant they have contributed in the economic development of Nigeria especially in the concerns grass root development were identified and properly evaluated. Also various measures adopted by the management of these banks were identified and appraise and suggestion on how improvements can be made contribution toward the return on investments and contribution towards the economic well being of the nation are achieved.
To facilitate the work data were collected from both the primary and secondary sources; pre3sented to aid test the development hypothesis on the basis of estimated population means.
Within he limit of the analysis carried out it was observed that banks have many problem facing them due largely to the inability to function very well in some places due to lack of infrastructure lack of sufficient funds lack of skilled workers and prohibitions.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
1.1 BACKGRUND OF THE STUDY
Ever since the introduction given by Good to man to “Be fruitful and multiply” replenish and subdue the earth” man has alone a lot to pursue this injunction of subduing the earth. By this it entails among other things the development of the world as a macro society for the overall good of man- economically politically socially and otherwise.
The wheel of change has been rolling on through the entire world transforming virgin lands deserts oceans and seas to the economic advantage of man. Nigeria was unknown then. The first step in the British acquisition of Nigeria was the annexation of lagos in 1861 (ONWUBIKE 1973). It marked the first major step taken by the British government in the 19th century to acquire economic and political domination over the people of Nigeria. A chattered company- the royal Niger company was administering the high land of Nigeria – North of Lokoja – on behalf of the British the British government had declared a protectorate over areas claimed by the company in 1887. Then on 1st Jan. 1990 it took royal Niger company and named it the protectorate of Northern Nigeria with laggard as its first high commissioner. Floral Shaw- formal colonial correspondent of the times on London who later became Lugards wife ealled this great political unit Nigeria in 1900. (onwuikeo,1973) finally the two Selecta government : the colony and the protectorate of Northen Nigeria on 1st Jan. 1914. Lugard became its first governor- general. The coming into existence of Nigeria was aptly described by late sir Ahmade when be rather solemnly said “God did not create Nigeria the British did” (onwubiko 1973). Nigeria continued in this march toward development in every facet of life as a new emerging nation in the west African region and by October 1960 she was granted political freedom and emancipation when she was granted independence. To crown the whole stride it had already made she was granted a republican status in 1963.
To grapple with the attendant problem as an emerging nation and satisfy its citizenry various development plans were launched to accelerate economic development so as to put Nigeria in the proper place among the comity of nations. The first development plans was slated to run from 1962 to 1968 but extended to 1970 on the account of the civil war. It witnessed the construction of the Niger Dam project as well as the development of roads light industries such as textile rubber and groundnut processing which used agricultural crops ; the encouragement of agriculture in the from of establishment of from institutions and granting of loans (Anderson, 1976).
The second development plan (1970 – 1975) experienced a lot of problem. Recovery from civil war delayed the implementation of some project. The funds that were anticipated were not forth coming and there was lack or technical partners needed to carry out some aspects of the plan. The third development plan covered a period of five years (1975 – 1980). The principle long run objectives are to similar to those of the proceeding post independence plans. The objectives are to make Nigeria.
1. Argent and dynamic economy.
2. A united strong and self reliant nation
3. A just and egalitarian society
4. A land bright and full of opportunities for all citizens.
5. A free and democratic society.
A 90% annual rate of growth G.D.P was assumed for the plan period and the total capital investment was to be N30 billion. The plan strategy was to utilize the country’s resources to develop the productive capacity of the economy. The plan was revised upward in 1976 (Ojo, 1982) some of the highlights of this plan were Agriculture. N1.4mbuilding of two oil refineries at warri and expanded. The iron and steel industry. Which featured in the previous plans was to be
established at Ajeokuta in Kogi state. A total of N6000m was allocated to the industrial sector. Development of the infrastructure also took a large slide with a total of N4000m being allocated. More roads were to come under the control of the federal government and a modernization of the railways was planned. The electricity capacity was to be extended to 1,500 meg watts with improvements also in its distribution all costing N 163m. social service were not neglected ; N2400m was budgeted for the arimed forces.
The 4th development plan equally followed suit to run from 1981- 1985- and described equally what development is all about. Since development is multidimensional in definition to road thus:
True development must means “the development of man- the unfolding and realization of his creative potentials enabling him to improve his material condition and living through the use of resource available to him. It is a process by which man’s personality is created organized and disciplined – which is the moving force behind socio – economic transformation of the society.
Most community leaders especially during the colonial times saw development as more of provision colonial times saw development as more of provision of schools health centers hospitals post offices hall, churches mosques, good roads potable water electricity and telephone. Ewuly (1996). However in the post independence era, the development process came to put more emphasis on the development in the material conditions and living (of man) through the use of came to stress production and productivity.
In spite all these development plans experimented in the past Nigeria like other countries of the third world has continued to face two challenges of economic development. The first challenge is the basic level need to attain this need involved the problem of harnessing the vast natural and human resource of the country so as to extend her national economics muscle and thereby enable her to catch up with the rest of the civilized world in terms of living standard. (Okafor 1991)
The other challenge is the need to achieve qualitative economic growth by attaining balance socio- economic development. National development is balanced when it permeates all the social and geo-political strata of a nation and affects all sectors of the national economy. The problem of economy developments in Nigeria as in other development countries is therefore not just that of getting the economy to run faster than the rest of the world economy so as to catch up with but to get the economy to run on both legs. Nigeria economy has manifested symptoms of non-balanced economic development in various ways. This is evidence in the near total dependence on oil the non- diversification of the export basket the over emphasis on coerce (on –banking ) to the determent of authentic (value added) manufacturing. It accounts for the litter to near total neglect of grass root development.
Fortunately Nigeria government has demonstrated unusual resolve and taken definite moves to grapple with the problem of non- balance development . this underscored by the problem of non- balance development. This underscored by the various development projects like OFN- operation feed the nation the Agricultural development project (AOA)DFRRI, SAP (structural Agricultural program) which was designed primarily to deal with fundamental economic problems generated by years f fruitless effort at non- balance economic development. The policy component of SAP while is relevant for this project is the impact of rural banking as it regards grassroots (economic development). The researcher wants to find out how far these bank have contributed at improving the economic situation of this country – with particular interest in Union bank Nig. Ltd .
How the ohha community bank Nig- Ltd. Measured up to the basicterms in the definition of a community bank? Are they operating within the scope of functions of community bank?
ORGANTGRAMME OF OHHA COMMUNITY BANK NIG. LTD
Board of directors
GSO Credit Officer Marketing manager internal
Clerts Typist Cashier
Messenger Night watchman
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Community banks have been assessed as capable of unshaken the monoculture economy of the country by empowering the entire productive sector at the grassroots level therefore ensuring even development across the country community banks promote rural development by providing effective simple services to the people an instrument for inculcating proper banking habits (saving and investment ) is now in place for the rural dwellers to work towards increasing his/ her per capita income and therefore be able to contribute more effectively toward the development of the area in which he/she lives.
When idea is conceived and placed on the drawing board it appears rosy. But when it comes to practical implementation most of the bitterness and problem emerge.
This study addresses the following problems.
1. Has ohha community bank helped in economic development of Nigeria?
2. If ohha community bank measured up to the standard set for the community bank by NBCB?
3. The essence of the introduction of the community banking system.
4. The operational mechanism of collatersation banks removed the issue of collaterisation of loan before any person can enjoy any so as to achieve the desired economic development .
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research work areas follows:
1. To find out the extent the establishment of ohha community bank helped in the economic development of Nigeria
2. To know if ohha community bank measured up to the standard set for the community Bank by NBCB
3. To know the essence of the introduction of the community banking system.
4. To find out the operation mechanism of collaterization bank removed the issue of collaterization of loans before any person can enjoy any, so to achieve the desired economic development
1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research project boarders on ohha community bank economic development in Nigeria ohha community bank measurement of the standard by the NBCB essence of introducing community banking system and operational mechanism of collaterisation bank removed so as to achieve the desired economic development.
1.5 PEREARCH QUESTIONS.
To solve the research problem the investigator has asked the following question.
1. To what extent has ohha community bank helped in economic development
2. To what extent has ohha community bank measured up to the standard set for the community banks by the Board for community banks?
3. What is / are the essence of the introduction of community banking system?
4. To what extent has the operational mechanism of collaterisation bank removed the issue of collaterisation of banks before any person can enjoy any so as to achieve the desire economic development?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (NULL HYPOTHESIS)
H0. There is no significant difference (p < 0 . 05)between the mean perception of senior and junior staff of ohha community bank with regards to the economic development through community banks.
Ho. There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the mean perception of senior and junior staff of ohha community bank with regard to whether the bank measures up to the requirement or standard set by NBCB.
Ho3 There no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the mean perception of senior and junior staff of ohha community bank on the importance / essence of community banking system.
H04 There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) between mean perception of senior and junior staff of ohha community bank with regards to how the banks deals with issues of colletarisation of loan.
1.7 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very simply especially now that all hands are no deck to enhance the development and growth of Nigeria economy. This study will be of immense benefit to rural dwellers to sensitize them on the importance of depositing their surplus fund with the banks for sate keeping it is necessary to investigate and evaluate the functions for the community banks in their catchments areas. This will inform prospective customers of the service available at community banks.
This study will be of immense help to small and medium scale traders c0-operative societies and formers etc. to invest their money and property on project that would field optimum result. It will also aid them if they want to borrow from the bank since from the study it is required on loan from the community banks.
To students researchers and those with curious and inquiring minds it will extend itself as a pedestal or substratum upon which expansionary and follow –up study offering course on community banking it will be added to the wealth of literature available for referencing.