The Evaluation of the Role of Governments in Solving Housing Problem
This work is about an evaluation of the role of government in solving housing problems in Anambra state. For many years housing has not receive its deserved attention in this country. Particularly Anambra state due to it popular demand and population it is hoped however that my findings would be of immense interest to the government. The report will form a good reference point of future scholars and government who may wish to conduct similar studies. I have always had this long desire to study to determine the evaluation of the role of government in solving housing problems in Anambra state.
Social scientists are yet to agree on which of the three basic needs of non-shelter, food and clothing which one comes first.
What is beyond debate is the fact that it takes more efforts resources and planning to meet the house needs of every society. In urban centres, provision of recent and affordable accommodation has continued to test the competence of the administrators.
Shelter has been Universally accepted as the second most important essential human need after food. Housing in all ramifications is more than mere shelter since it embraces all the social services and utilities that go to make a community or neighbourhood a livable environment. In fact, man has been in their need of this essential commodity for his well being even the primitive men could not do without the caves, which provided shelter to them. Indeed, housing is a veritable index of measuring the social economic and technological development of a nation, “show me the quality of your people’s house and I will tell what kind of nation you are” could aptly become a maxim.
The simple refuse affording privacy and protection against the elements is beyond the reach of most members of human race.
In attempt to lessen the housing burden on the populace, various governments in Nigeria at one time to other adopted housing programmes. The policies are directed toward the production and management of climatically, socially and economically suitable housing at an affordable price.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The research was carried out to know the role of government in solving housing problems in Anambra state.
The research opts for the Anambra state housing development corporation as a good case study to review the success of housing for all by the government.
Awka South Local Government Area (LGA) is made up of eight towns, namely Okpuno, Amawbia, Awka, Ezinato, Isiagu, Mbaukwu, Nibo, Nise and Umuawulu.
Awka is the capital of Anambra state and the seat of the government: it is accessible by road form all parts of eastem region states. Nise have notable infrastructure like WAEC (West Africa examination Council) state head office and St. Paul Univerisity College situated there.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Housing is recognized in the world wide as one of the basic necessities of life. As every normal adult is expected to have a house both for himself and his family, but due to economic hardship being experience in the country, this basic necessity of life no longer affordably by greater majority of Nigerians various housing policies and programmes have always been partial if not a failure. It is in this context that the research has decide to carry out a survey work on the role of government in solving housing problem.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Due to the fapid hazardous growth of Anambra state as a result of rapidly growing population, over crowding, environmental condition and the phenomenal changes in economic political and social condition, pose obvious challenges can termed to be as follows.
1. The provision of accommodation facilities for the teeming and ever increasing population of the state and its environment for commercial and residential purpose.
2. To acquire develop hold, manage, sell, loose or let any property moveable within the state.
3. Housing the homeless people of the state and providing more reasonable alternatives for those either to or presently poorly accommodated.
The establishment of a home-ownership saving scheme in respect of any housing estate or building owned, constituted and managed by the corporation. The above mentioned in the aim of every succession government in the state, since the inception of the corporation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the role of our government in solving housing problems in Anambra state can be summarized as:
1. To highlight the role of housing in our society vis-à-vis the problem suffered form shortage and problems of housing provision.
2. To analyze the various ways which the government had used and are still using in the provision of housing for the teeming population in Anambra state thereby examining the historical development of government policy in the area of housing.
3. To examine critically and analyze the actual problems which are militating against housing production in Anambra state, including focus on their sources of finance and budget allocations.
4. To suggest recommendation to the problems. In big cities, like Awka, Onitsha, Enugu, Port-Harcourt, Lagos, etc because of the high influx of people to those cities and the existing housing stock not being able to cope with the increasing population, house rents have been so high, so also land prices and many low quality houses without adequate facilities were quickly springing up.
1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The write up of this thesis is limited to the available data being collected in ministry of works, housing and transport, 5 works roads, Awka, Anambra state. The constraints encountered include that of the department of architecture of the ministry of housing which declined to give out building design and layout for securing purpose.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Housing is the total unit of shelter and its environmental which gives man better quality of life. The term environment in this regard comprises of three groups and this includes natural aspect of environment includes air, water, vegetable and everything natural endowed to man. The artificial aspect is things made or created by man that adds to the beauty of nature and makes life more comfortable for man, these include services such as road, electricity, sewage, pipe borne water etc. as well as other building around.
The final aspect is man himself. Hence, forms of housing can be grouped into or can be traced back to time to the early age, the traditional society, and the modem society. Housing can be looked at as an object where people live or an activity where people undertake.
Turner (1968) refers to housing as a verb and as a noun. As a verb, housing could be seen as an activity i.e people who are in one way or other partake in the building of these houses. The people are the principle actors, as a noun, it could be seen as an object produced by people.
Vagele (1971) said in one of his course paper that decent and adequate human shelter is one of the basic needs of the individuals, the family and the community. as the house and the residential environment have a profound influence on human health, efficiency, social behaviours and satisfaction. It also determines the level of social and economic development of a nation.
Ownership of house is a symbol of prestige and social stature in traditional societies and trends to roster social cohesion and a sense of belongingness. Good housing is essential for human dignity and staff fulfillment. In essence, it provides the physical frame work and the environmental values of man and society are released, enriched and integrated.
The quality and quantity of the housing stock is a reliable barometer for measuring and standard of living the level of technology, culture and civilization of any nation. One of primary indications of the “success” of a country is how it has housed its people. There are three basic physiological needs of human beings namely: food, shelter and clothing.
Housing is a complex. Product providing a combination of services that are crucial to development in both welfare and economic terms and hence the accordance of great importance in national planning and development programmes. Housing must be judged by what it does to people rather than by what it is. Any housing strategy that delivers just houses and structures instead of houses as shelter and services if not meaningful and non-functional of the study.
Government is broadly defined as the administrative group people with authority to govern a political state. Government is the means by which store policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of state government or form of state government refers to the set of political institutions by which a government of a state is organized. Every successive government is composed of a body of individual who control and exercise control over political decision making. Their unction is to make and enforce laws and arbitrate conflicts.
NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY (N.H.P.)
It was approve in 1990 and launched in 1991 with the sole aim of ensuring access to decent accommodation of affordable cost to all Nigerians.
NATIONAL HOUSING FUND (N.H.F)
It encourages the development of specific programmes that would ensure effective financing of housing development in particular low cost housing for low income earners.