The Perception and Attitude of Pregnant Women Towards Caesarean Section
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Pregnancy as a physiologic state is expected to lead to a process of delivery within thirty six weeks (36) of gestation in a normal delivery but due to the different reasons such as variation in human body, sizes, races, external factors e.t.c, it can be a very unpleasant experience as women may have difficulties in being delivered of the pregnancy they have carried over many weeks.
Hence, to save the life of both mother and child in some cases, a caesarean section. A caesarean section also known as Caesarean Section is an operation technique by which a fetus is delivered through an indications can either be maternal or fetal. The trend of acceptability and the rate of Caesarean Section has been on the increase in the developed countries in the past two decades. In the United State of America, it has revolved off a 32.8% in 2010 and 2011 (Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Ventura SJ, 2010). Several caesarean sections are sometimes done for justifiable medical and non-medical indications sequently the rate of C/S in Europe and North America have been increasing (Declercq ER, Sakela C, Corry MP, 2013).
Conversely, in the developing countries, the change in Caesarean Section rate has been dramatic during the same period. This results from negative perception of Caesarean Section among women in the developing countries. Caesarean Section is still being perceived as an abnormal means of delivery by some women in developing countries, hence Caesarean Section rate in Sub-Saharan African Country like Burkina Faso and Niger is as low as 2% (Sunday Adeoje I, Kalu CA, 2011).
Among women in the developing countries, Caesarean Section is still being perceived as a curse on an unfruitful women and the lot of weak women. In a study among Yoruba women of South western Nigeria, Caesarean Section was viewed with suspicious, aversion, misconception, fear, guilt misery and anger. (Sunday-Adeoje et al, 2011).
In Nigeria, as in most sub-Saharan African countries, it has been suggested that women reluctantly accept C/S even in the face of obvious clinical indications. Also, negative view and perception of C/S by women in the developing country has led to gross underathizetlien of the procedure compared to the large burden of obstetric morbid requiring resolution by C/S (AzikenMicheal, Lawrence Omo-Aghoja 2010).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigerian has been rated the third country with the highest mortality rate after India and Sierra Leone with over 40,000 dths of pregnant women 2012 (WHO 2013).
Unfortunately, despite the well documented record of safety, the strong aversion of women in sub-Saharan Africa tot eh procedure especially in the presence of life threatening indications is a great concern (Awoyinka BS, 2006). Hence the researcher wants to assess the perception and attitude of patients at the antenatal clinic to know if it is accepted or not and the factors that influences their attitudes towards caesarean section.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This study is aimed at the determination of the possible reasons or factors that influence the perception and attitude of Oredo Local Government women towards caesarean section.
1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
To assess the perception of Oredo Local Government women of caesarean section.
To determine the attitude of Oredo Local Government women towards Caesarean Section.
To assess the possible factors that influence their perception and attitude.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is significant because it will help the women understand the need for C/S especially when a vaginal delivery seem threatening to their health and that of their fetus.
It will also help in debunking their various belief and taboo about the procedure which has been one of the reasons why they have been resistant to approve of it so that the rate of maternal and fetal mortality will be reduced to the nearest minimum.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the perception of Oredo local government women about Caesarean Section?
What is the attitude of Oredo local government women towards Caesarean Section?
What are the factors that influence the perception and attitude of Oredo local government women towards Caesarean Section?
There is no significant relationship between cultural beliefs and practice as a factor that influences the perception of Oredo local government women of Caesarean section.
There is no significant relationship between the fear of death and complications of surgery is a factor that influences the attitude of Oredo local government women towards C/S.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is done to assess the perception and attitude of Oredo local government women towards C/S and it is carried out amongst the antenatal clinic pregnant women at central hospital (Oredo local government) between 25th of September and 20th of November, 2014. Women within the marriage and childbearing age (18 – 45 years) were selected as accepted legally under the Nigerian constitution.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Anaesthesia: The state in which one is unable to feel anything especially pain by injecting drug into the body.
Attitude: The way one behave towards somebody or something that shows how you think or feel.
Caesarean Section: It is an operative technique by which a fetus is delivered through an abdominal and uterine incision and the indications can either be maternal or fetal.
Dystocia: It implies any form of abnormalities in pregnancy or any deviation from normal during pregnancy.
Knowledge: To have information about something because you have experience or because you have learned it or be told.
Macrosomia: Large babies weighing more than 40kg at birth especially in diabetic mothers.
Mortality: The number of death in a particular situation or period of time.
Perception: To notice something in a particular way or hold a view about something.
Placenta previa: This is a condition in which the placenta of a fetus lies where the presenting part of the fetus is supposed to come out (the cervical OS).