The Role of Financial Institutions in a Depressed Economy
The Study investigated the role of financial institutions in a depressed economy. The objective is to find out whether the role of financial institutions is improving the growth and development of Nigeria economy, to know what the government doing to maintain or encourage the financial institutions in a depressed economy. We tested two hypothesis using chi-square methods. In hypothesis one, we tested the relationship between financial institutions and economic development. After calculated it was discovered that chi-square calculated is greater than chi-square tabulated. So the null hypothesis was rejected and all the alternative is accepted which said that, there is a relationship between financial institution and economic development. In hypothesis two, we tested the relationship between financial institutions and implementation of government policies. After calculated, it was discovered that chi-square calculated is greater than chi-square tabulated and the alternative is accepted which said that there is relationship between financial institution and implementation of government policies. The study among others recommend that financial institution should channel to the key productive sector of the economy such as agricultural sector and manufacturing sector which will lead to rapid growth and diversification of the economy.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Having chosen this topic to write on, my objectives is to find out the roles played by our financial institutions in our present economic situation whether they being followed in this time of economic recession their effects on the economy and the extents to which they have gone in helping to revamp the economy. Financial institutions. The historical background or theses financial institution are made up of banking and non-banking institutions. The historical background of these financial institution is mode of operation which is an important aspect of this study. By their historical background. We can now know the aims purpose, objectives of these financial institution in our economy. In 1st July 1959, the first central bank of Nigeria (C.B.N) which was the apere bank that control other financial institution in the country was established. Commercial bank is the oldest of all banking institutional in Nigeria, it dates back to 1892 when. It was known as the bank of British West Africa (Now First bank of Nigeria) was established. This was followed in 1917 by the Barchys bank (Dominidu, colonia and overseas) (DCO) (Now union bank in 1933. the first successful Indigenous commercial bank was named National bank of Nigeria was established in 1948. African continental bank (ACB) was established by 1960 at independent, these were (12) twelve banks operating in the country with a total number of 160 offices and branches scattered in different locations of the country.
Many specialized credit institutions have in the past two and half decades developed. These includes the Nigeria Merchant banks, Nigeria industrial development bank (NIDB) Nigeria bank for commerce and industry (NACB) established 1973 and restructured in the 1978 to include the finance of co-operative bank established in the federal mortgage bank of Nigeria constitution in July, 1977, merchant banks then are relatively new business which were trance to 1960 when Philip will Nigeria limited was established. The Non-bank financial institution includes finance companies, the oldest finance Ltd was established in 1959. Then insurance companies, then first insurance companies were 1921 and was named Royal exchange Assurance company, investment companies unit trust, co-operative societies which have its foundation from the establishment of co-operative stores in 1844 in Britain, its origin in Nigeria banks to the eighteen (18th) century Bureaux De change which was establish in 1989 though the decree that the same your and persen provident fund. It is the desire of all these financial institutions to to create an impact on the Nigeria economy. Also the citizen’s expectant from all these financial institution is to see the roles played by these financial institution in our present economic situations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In view of the depressed economy, there are bedeviled practices which disturbs financial institutions in carrying out their roles for the growth of the economy. Those practices are as fellows below: Lack of ability to supply funds (Loan) to the small scales industries (Business) The inability to offer interest yielding financial instruments. The inability to effectively manger the financial aspect of the economy.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study is to find out whether the role is improving the growth and development of Nigeria economy is being played efficiently and effectively and those things that gives distress in the system. Another objective was to know or X-ray what the government is doing to maintain any financial institution in a depressed economy like Nigeria and solve the problem if any and also solved the problem of low productivity. And unemployment in the economy at large. And also in partial fulfillment of my national diploma (ND)
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research project is more important to the financial institutions and department of the central bank of Nigeria, various commercial banks in Nigeria and it will also serve as readable material for further research. It is necessary for lectures (Teachers) and workers in relation to this study. It is important to student taking courses in accountant, banking and finance and economics to have modern approach to the teaching and understanding the financial institutions in which they will find interest in.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research project is designed to cover the roles of financial institutions in the development of the economy. It shall cover both the present and past period of financial institutions in Nigeria. For easier collection of data some banks particularly commercial banks will be examined for the research.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
- Does financial institution (Banks) engage themselves in activities that help to develop the economy?
- Does the banks regulation have any effect on the roles of financial institution as they play in the economy?
- Does long-term borrowing affect the role of financial institution in a depressed economy?
- Is the contribution of financial funds to banks enough to be felt at well as stimulating the economy?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The oxford advanced learners dictionary defined hypothesis as suggestion or idea the is based on know facts and is used as basis for reasoning or further investigation. For the purpose of this study, the hypothesis shall be analyzed in order to prove their level of rejections and acceptance. These are hypothesis which were used.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between financial institutions and economic development.
- Hi: There is significant relationship between financial institution and economic development.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between financial institutions and implementation of government policies
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between financial institutions and implementation of government policies
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
I wish to express my difficulties which I encountered when collecting information through the questionnaires The present fuel price increase was a major limited as it made transportation to these banks and libraries quite difficult. Besides times and financial constraints, some other factors that militated against this research projects includes: Lack of books: The scope of its work was electively affected because of scarcity of books in the relevant areas. Attitude constraints: In the case of the questionnaire, some blatantly refused to collect it to gill while those that collected tool a lot of time to fill the required answers. Some fill them haphazardly. Bureaucratic constraints: Under this limitation concrete attempt made to interview or reach top official failed because of redtaptism in running official engagements and procedures in releasing the official or secret of the company.