THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS
THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS
THIS RESEARCH WORK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY TO EXAMINE AND ASSESS THE ROLES BEING PLAYED BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS. THE WORK IS ALSO DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY THE CAUSES OF THE LOW RATE OF INVOLVEMENT OF THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AND THE POSSIBLE WAYS OF MAKING THEM MORE IDEALLY EFFECTIVE. THE STUDY WAS CARRIED OUT PRINCIPALLY ON COMMUNITY SELF-HELP ORGANIZATION IN AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA. A TOTAL POPULATION OF 100 WAS SELECTED AS SAMPLE SIZE THROUGH SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUES. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTIVELY WERE USED BY THE RESEARCHER WHICH INCLUDE ORAL INTERVIEWS AND QUESTIONNAIRES, TEXTBOOKS, JOURNALS, DOCUMENT AND NEWSPAPER. THE RESEARCHER DESIGNED ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) QUESTIONNAIRES BUT ONE HUNDRED (100) WERE SELECTED RETRIEVED. STATISTICAL TOOLS WERE ALSO USED FOR THIS RESEARCH WORK. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE EMPLOYED IN CARRYING OUT THIS RESEARCH BASED ON THE HISTORICAL NATURE. THE RELEVANT INFORMATION WHICH HELP AND SERVED AS THE FOUNDATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES WERE THE THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND RELATED LITERATURE BASED ON THE ROLES OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OR RURAL AREA. CONCLUSIVELY, LACK OF BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE PROBLEMS OF INADEQUATE ORIENTATION REDUCES THE NUMBERS OF PROJECTS BEING CARRIED OUT BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS. GOVERNMENT SHOULD ENDEAVOUR TO PROVIDE OUR RURAL AREAS WITH THE BASIC SOCIAL AMENITIES SO THAT THESE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION WILL NOT BEDISCOURAGES BY THE ALARMING FINANCIAL CONSTRAINT THAT COULD MAR THE PROVISION OF THESE AMENITIES BEFORE THE OPERATION OF THEIR ORGANIZATIONS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ——————————————– i
Approval ——————————————— ii
Table of contents———————————– viii
1.0 Introduction ———————————- 1
1.1 Background of the study——————– 5
1.2 Statement of the problem——————- 8
1.3 Purpose of the study————————- 9
1.4 Significance of the study——————– 10
1.5 Research questions ————————- 11
1.6 Scope of the study————————— 12
1.7 Limitation of the study ——————— 12
1.8 Definition of the terms ——————— 13
2.0 Introduction ——————————– 15
2.1 The concept of Non-governmental Organization 15
2.2 The concept of Rural Development——– 24
2.3 Registration of Non-Governmental Organization 26
2.4 Importance of Registering an NGO ——— 27
2.5 Types of Non-Governmental Organization – 29
2.6 Objectives of Rural Development ———— 33
2.7 Community Self-Help in Development —— 34
2.8 Non-Governmental Organization as a means
to improve Rural Development ————— 39
2.9 Summary of Literature Review ————— 41
3.0 Research Methodology————————– 42
3.1 Brief outline of the study ———————- 42
3.2 Design of the study—————————– 43
3.3 Area of the study——————————- 43
3.4 Population of the study———————– 43
3.5 Sample of the study————————— 44
3.6 Instrument for data collection ————– 44
3.7 Validation of the instrument —————- 45
3.8 Distribution and Retrieval of instrument — 45
3.7 Method of data analysis———————– 46
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis ———— 47
4.1 Presentation of Findings ———————- 47
4.2 Findings —————————————– 59
Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.0 Summary of findings————————— 60
5.1 Conclusion ————————————– 63
5.2 Recommendations —————————– 65
References ————————————– 67
Appendix —————————————- 69
Questionnaire ———————————- 70
Over the years, successive Non-Governmental Organization Agencies in Nigeria have demonstrated appreciable interest towards the provision of amenities to both the rural and urban population of the country. The interest shown by this non-governmental organizational agency could be derived from their genuine intention of uplifting the living standard of the people. There is therefore no gain saying the fact that there have been some noticeable increase in educational institutions, health care centers, road constructions, water supply and so on as they strive to impress the people. Experience has shown that the provision and maintenance of amenities cannot be handled by government alone because it will be too onerous for government to satisfy the needs of all communities, bearing in mind the limitation of time and resource. It is therefore, necessary for the agencies of government to educate the people to appreciate the fact that the transformation of their country for enhancement of their standard of living should be a joint responsibility between the rural areas and the government or it’s agencies. This is why series of reforms and restructuring have been undertaken at local government level, all in an attempt to make it more responsive to the yearnings and aspirations of the people. It is also aimed to evolving an efficient and functional administrative and resources allocation system that will make for rapid growth and modernization of rural areas.
The impact of Non-Governmental Organizational Agencies (NGO’s) in rural development has attracted the attention of some great scholars. Nnoli (1981) refers development as “a natural fact in which the individuals and society interact with their physical, biological and inter human environment transforming them for their own benefit and that of humanity at large”.
Also Aroh (1997) viewed rural development as a process whereby rural dwellers come together to perform various functions in order to give a face lift to their immediate environment or rural area.
Also Obasi, Oko and Nnamdi Erondu (2010) viewed rural development as the improvement of the living standard of the people of low income population risiding in rural areas and making the process of their development self-sustaining. The United Nations children rural (1995) perceive NGO’s as organizations or loose association which are composed of people working together to address a need. They give basic elements of NGO’s.
i) An NGO is primary an intermediate organization that is development oriented.
ii) Non – profit oriented
iii) Non-government in term of organization, membership and funding
iv) A voluntary organization.
In all, Non-Governmental Organization agencies role in rural development is aimed at making people self-reliant, able to participate in national development. It also ensure that both the rural and urban areas the provision of the necessary assistance, like funds, legal and structural framework, and technical and managerial expertise necessary for the programmes (Aroh, 2002).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The study was carried out in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The local government area occupies an area of about 200 square kilometers with an estimated population of 8,000 people (NPC, 1991). The local Government is bounded in the east by Orji Local Government, in South by Udi Local Government, in West by Abia State and in North by Ani-nri Local Government.
In these very local government which is Awgu more than 90% (90 percent) of the inhabitant living in the rural area of the local government area are Igbo’s who are mainly from Enugu while the remaining percentage are people from other parts of the country who must have come to settle in the area for the search of green pastures, such as farming, trading, schooling and business. The local government comprises of different communities like Agbo-Ogwugwu, Mgbidi, Mmaku, Ihe, Ituku, Ozalla, Owerre Court, Mpu etc. The occupation of the people is teaching, farming, trading, civil servants etc. The Awgu co-operative union was formed in 1980 and it is one of the first co-operative formed in that area during that period and it’s aim is to help to improve the living standard of the people by indulging them into contributing money which is likely known as (Isusu), so that any member that is in need of capital can take loan from the cooperative and later pay back without interest. After the 1980 co-operative come another one in (1982) which is called the Umuene co-operative after that came another one in 1986 named Umuanioke co-operative and all this tends towards enhancing the living standard of the rural dwellers and making life easier for them. This union has been noted to be a well recognized union of the development of the rural area and also has help in extending arms to the less privileged in the rural areas. There was a remarkable thing done by these Awgu co-operative union on September (2002) they bought chairs and desks for the whole primary school in Awgu Local Government Area, also in December 2004 the Awgu co-operative donated bags of rice and wrappers to the widows in the rural areas. The Agwu history is something one cannot forget in a haste, the people of Awgu are people of integrity, honesty and responsible, as I was told the Awgu people are known for their hard work, zeal to help one another and have the spirit of oneness and believe in teamwork from the above indication it means that they live a life worthy of emulation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Through the rural dwellers non-governmental organizations have continued to play a significant role in rural development by producing food and agricultural raw materials for export and local consumptions but yet so many rural areas still lack the basic amenities of life such as good roads, postal services and communication e.g. MTN Network, Nitel, Glo, Airtel, Etisalat etc Anyanwu (1981). The unbalance in provision of these basic amenities and infrastructural between the rural and urban areas have occasioned an unprecedented rural urban daft with a depressive effects on the rural economy which the facts has been established in a way whereby the non-governmental organizational agencies is constrained in it’s efforts to provide citizens with all the required social and basic amenities for comfortable living Anyanwu (1992). The truth is that Non-Government Organizations have been established by various community members, who came together to compliment the effort government.