THE ROLE OF TELEVISION IN POLITICAL PERSUASION
Mass communication is defined as message directed towards a large group people using a mass medium. It involves disseminating information to a large and widely dispersed audience mass communication is made possible through the help of mass media. That is to say mass media makes mass communication a reality mass media include television, radio newspaper magazines etc.
Researchers in mass communication were interested in knowing how specific massage; channels and sources could produce changes in attitude of behaviours. This was the natural outgrowth of the way mass communication research have developed from the 1920s fueled by public fear of the media, along with anxious politicians, eager advertiser, crusading social engineers and others watching to see the massive reach of the media; “to get their message across” quickly and efficiently. Government, military and corporate funding sources played an important role in the decision of those working within the field to take the direction. The goal was to determine what kind of persuasive message could be used most effectively in mobilizations of various kind political, advertising, public health, economic, educational, military and so on.
Recent changes to the technologies of both the print and electronic media, and in particular the medium of television have already begun to fragment media audience and transform the relationship between media and the nation (masses)
Therefore the utilization of the media in mobilization and persuasion is very crucial because the broadcast media, particularly the television has become the major sources of information dissemination over the years, and also the major means and most effective tools for political persuasion in Nigeria.
The ability of television to mobilize and persuade the people to behave in a given manner and to perform certain actions has merit an effective tool for political persuasion because it can send sound and picture simultaneously to a large and widely disposal audience, and it is captivating and dramatic in nature. Television appeals to the sense of sight and sound; it is comprehensive technique and the combination of audio and visual colours and motion. It has the ability to capture the interest of most viewers. That is why government and other private bodies give much attention to it. The media (television) serves as an intermediary between the government and the people because it assists the government in getting its plans and policies across to the people and the people in return gets their response, feeling and plight back to the government.
After many years of military rule in Nigeria, democracy became a much needed endeavour and television serves as a major tools through which the people were fully information education, enlightened, mobilized and persuaded to activity participate in the decision making in the country during transition period.
Television and NTA Kaduna to a large extend help in making the people in Nigeria to get all the political awareness, and it mobilize the people to both contest election and be voted for, or to vote for a candidate of their choice as an electorate. The importance of television in order to ensure a successful transition in Nigeria cannot be under estimated. Television really plays a key role in political persuasion in Nigeria.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study is to stress the role or importance of television in political persuasion and outline its effectiveness in political mobilization and persuasion during transitionship and the importance television in the society and the effect and acceptability of television messages in the society in relation to other media of mass communication.
Further, the role of NTA Kaduna in Political persuasion is also emphasized in this study and the reality and credibility of television messages across great distance is clearly exposed and explained.
This study is finally designed to make government and other private bodies know the importance of the media and particularly the television, in political awareness, mobilization and persuasion.
SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work is centered on the role of television in political persuasion with NTA kaduna as a case study. It is worth knowing that since anything that is media related is usually broad and cannot be discussed in isolation, other facts about the role and importance of the media (television) world also sufficed in the course of writing the term paper.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
The limitation encountered in the course of this study is not encountered to the fact that the relevant information and documents required were not provided by the media organization because of the confidentiality of such information to the media organization.
This research work is also in intended for many broadcast media, but due to time factor and financial constraint, it was limited to NTA Kaduna
BRIEF HISTORY OF CASE STUDY
The Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna is an off shoot of the former broadcasting company of Northern Nigeria Kaduna (BCNN) which was established in March, 1962. it was originally established as a Radio and Television Broadcasting corporation from which its former name of Radio Television Kaduna came about. The station has been subjected to various changes by the succeeding governments.
Nigeria television Authority (NTA) Kaduna was excised from the former Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN), which was established by decree No 21 of 31st March 1962, the decree took effect from April 1st 1976.
The station has 10 kilometer each cover to down south of Kaduna, Malumfashi in Katsina state and part of Kano State.
The transmitter operates on 4 bands 1 VHF, transmitter which is situated at No 99, Isah Kaita Road Kaduna, and was commission in 1993 and covers up to Kafanchan, Saminaka and Birnin Gwari. The transmitter could be said to cover three quarter of the land area of Kaduna.
In April, 1976, the former Federal Military Government took the television aspect of Radio Television Kaduna and Made it to be on its own which is the present Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna, and the Radio aspect was called Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Kaduna.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses will be tested to guide this study;
H0: there is no significant effect of television in political persuasion.
H1: there is significant effect of television in political persuasion.
DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGIES
The terminologies to be defined constitute the title of this term paper. The Title is the Role of Television in Political Persuasion. The terminologies could therefore be defined as follows:
vROLE: The Advance learners dictionary define roles as a function that a person or thing typically has or is expected to have.
vTELEVISION: The Webster dictionary defines television as the exact and continuous transmission of visual image, still or in motion but without permanent recording. For instantaneous viewing at a distance; effected by a combine optical and electrical system for converting waves into corresponding electrical impulses, which are converted into their visual form in a receiving set.
vPOLITICAL: The Webster dictionary defines the word “political” as anything pertaining to public policy concerned in the administration of government.
MOBILIZATION: This is the art of making people to behave in a given manner and to perform certain actions.
The work of different scholars on broadcast media and particularly the radio.
Dennis M.C Quail (1979): The Effect and influence of
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Rives W.L. Etal (1982): The Mass Media and modern Society”
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Meinick Sornoff (1975) “Psychology Explanation in Behaviour and Experience”.