THEORETICAL RESEARCH ON THE EFFECT OF COMPUTER USAGE ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
1.1 Background of the study
The world is constantly changing and ways in which we function at home, work and school are also changing. The speed at which technology has developed plays a major role in these changes. From e-mail to on-line classes, computers are definitely influential in our lives, and can enhance the learning process in schools in various ways. With the increasing popularity of computer technology, it is essential for administrators to support and encourage computer technology in our education systems as it has become an important medium in instructional delivery and instructional management. The recognition of the value of computer in the teaching learning process in the contemporary world engendered the introduction of computer education into the Nigerian school curriculum in 1989. For meaningful teaching of computer education and dissemination of computer knowledge, the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) (1996) is of the opinion that there is need to produce seasoned professional teachers in computer education in order to accomplish the desired objectives
Nigeria’s philosophy of education believes that education is an instrument for national development and as such, there is a need for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united Nigeria (Adaralegbe, 1985). To this end, school programmes need to be practical relevance and be comprehensive, while interest and ability should determine individuals’ direction in education. According to the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2004), education and training facilities should continue to be expanded in response to the societal needs and made progressively accessible to afford individuals more diversified and flexible choices. Education activities should be centered on the learner for maximum self-development and self-fulfiment. The educational system should be structured to develop the practice of self-learning, while modern educational techniques should be increasingly used and improved in all levels of the educational system (FRN, 2004). One of the goals of secondary education is to provide trained manpower in the applied science and technology, at sub-professional grades. The sciences at the senior secondary school level comprises of physics, chemistry, and biology. The biology curriculum, which was originally prepared by the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Center (CESAC), is aimed at satisfying the biology requirements of the senior secondary school programmes in the New National Policy on Education. The curriculum content is organised around the major concepts of living and non-living, ecology, genetics, nutrition, and the nervous system. These topics are organised into instructional units and are sequenced in a spiral form with each unit treated in detail as the course progresses. CESAC recommended that the guided discovery approach should be used in teaching. This instructional approach is recommended to ensure that learners are provided with continuous experiences in the skills of solving problems, recognizing assumptions, critical thinking, hypothesizing, observing, collecting and recording data, testing and evaluating evidence, manipulating variables, generalizing, and applying generalization.
With the introduction of computer into the educational system, it has been discovered that teaching could be developed in a more flexible way through Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in order to make it more responsive to student’s learning. According to Babalola (1998), the most important feature in computerized instruction is that it permits a high degree of individualization. This in effect means that students can proceed at their own pace, following a path through the curriculum as suited to their particular interest and talent. However, the introduction of computer in the last couple of years has had little or no impact on the traditional daily activities within the school system (Yusuf, 1998)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Learning outcome of every student according to Bakare, 2009, majorly depends on the type of teaching methods, teaching strategies, and instructional techniques or approaches employed by the teacher during instruction. Traditional teaching methods such as lecture, demonstration and field trip adopted for teaching basic in senior secondary school by teachers are often referred to as conventional teaching method termed to be teacher centered instead of students centered (Sonola, 2007). This method of teaching technical subjects according to her, discouraged creativity and disallowed students from thinking beyond what is presented to them by their teachers. The students are reduced to passive learners and as a result become apathetic and repulsive to learning. Since literature review showed that there was no perfect superiority of CAI over conventional teaching methods, the researcher decided to study the effect of computer usage on the academic achievements of secondary school students. The report from Federal Ministry of Education (1993, WAEC 1996-2006) (NECO 2001-2005) identified lack of application of effective methodology for teaching technical subjects as major reason for low academic achievements of students in senior secondary schools – Cambell and Cambell (1999), also explained that traditional method of teaching do not adequately equip teachers with contemporary views of students intelligences and their vast learning capabilities.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of computer usage on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Lagos state. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following objectives;
i) To ascertain the effect of computer usage on the academic achievement of students.
ii) To evaluate the relationship between the use of computer and traditional teaching technique
iii) To ascertain the role of computer assisted instruction in improving student participation in class
iv) To ascertain the impact of computer on students reading habit.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the sake of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher
H0: computer usage does not have any significant effect on the academic performance of students in Lagos state.
H1: computer usage has a significant effect on the academic performance of students in Lagos state.
H02: there is no significant relationship between the use of traditional teaching technique and the use of computer assisted instruction.
H2: there is a significant relationship between the use of traditional teaching technique and the use of computer assisted technique.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the ministry of education; as the findings will guide them in policy formulation and in implementation of computer assisted instruction in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lagos. The study will also be of great importance to the management of secondary schools in Lagos state as the study seeks to elaborate on the tremendous benefit of computer assisted instruction. The study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers theoretical research on the effect of computer usage on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Lagos state. In the course of the study, the researcher encountered some constrain which limited the scope of the study.
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sequences of operations, called programs, enable them to perform a wide range of tasks.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational
Something accomplished, especially by superior ability, special effort, great courage, etc.
1.8 Organization of the study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.